- One sound to one letter, e.g. consonants / l / / m / / f / / v / / t /
- One sound to two letters, e.g. ‘th’ / θ / with, three and ‘ch’ / tʃ / in children
- Short vowel sound/letter correspondence, e.g. in, at, bed
- Long vowel sound spelt with two letters ‘oo’ / uː / room.